Aws Postman Session Token

Audience represents the recipient of the token. Extend SAML token duration - AWS Each time we login to the AWS web console via a Centrify web app the session timeouts after an hour. jsで作ったAWSのCognito認証をPythonで作り直したので晒してみます。 事前準備 PythonでAWSにアクセスするには. You can optionally send your AWS STS requests to endpoints in any of the AWS regions shown in the table that follows. I’m using Auth0 for auth. To use the TypeScript definition files within a Node. In step 1, you registered a client app in Azure AD. This token cannot be added using the aws configure command directly but needs to be added to the environment variable or the ~/. Interface to access AWS CLI configs and credentials. bearer token issued by the ADP Security Token Service. aws/credentials file. In the AWS Lambda Shell Hack article, I present a crude hack that lets me run shell commands in the AWS Lambda environment to explore what might be available to Lambda functions running there. You can exchange the token with Amazon STS for temporary AWS credentials, which are valid for a maximum of one hour. Easily obtain AccessToken(Bea rer) from an existing Az/AzureRM PowerShell session You'll find in this function an easy way to extract the information required for you to build a Bearer token and all this from YOUR credentials within an authenticated PowerShell Azure session. If parameters are not set within the module, the following environment variables can be used in decreasing order of precedence AWS_URL or EC2_URL, AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID or AWS_ACCESS_KEY or EC2_ACCESS_KEY, AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY or AWS_SECRET_KEY or EC2_SECRET_KEY, AWS. Day one at VMworld 2017 was huge, exciting announcements about VMWare on AWS and ubiquitous security via the NSX framework and AppDefense. Note about access token expiration: The sessionUpload REST API used above returns a 403 status code if the token is expired or invalid, which is different than the typical API response of a 401 status code. My app consists of a Vue. Insomnia is a cross-platform GraphQL and REST client, available for Mac, Windows, and Linux. Same semantics as aws_access_key_id above. Cognito Access Token + AWS API Gateway + Postman. Copy it to notepad and then click the "Use Token" button. We now need to setup a Postman environment for use with VMC. This could be useful in cases when you would like to obtain temporary credentials and session tokens and update environment variables on your own. Things that you need to know: I'm using PHP 5. js will be copied to your configured source directory, for example. Amazon S3 S3 for the rest of us. Welcome to your AWS Workshop Portal. In this article, I will explain how to connect to WP REST API while using an access token provided by WP OAuth Server. Pachyderm Documentation Pachyderm Documentation. See the complete profile on LinkedIn and discover François’ connections and jobs at similar companies. The credentials consist of an access key ID, a secret access key, and a security token. Returns a set of temporary credentials for an AWS account or IAM user. This API endpoint works within a login flow in which your app server calls the Create Session Login Token API to generate a session token. The original ticket description remains the correct approach, IMHO. Have you tried using a session id - you can use that as the token and it works as well - that way, you can hopefully work out if it's the code, or the oauth process – BritishBoyinDC Jun 23 '15 at 3:38. import boto3 from boto3 import Session def connect_sts(region, role_arn): sts_client = boto3. Manage Certificates. To make my API call secure, I am using Authentication type AWS_IAM and also attached. — Jacob Kaplan-Moss, "REST worst practices" Authentication is the mechanism of associating an incoming request with a set of identifying credentials, such as the user the request came from, or the token that it was signed with. Refer to my earlier post here on how to get them. The session ID can be stored as a cookie, form field, or URL (Uniform Resource Locator). aws/credentials file with a AWS CLI profile called example looks like this. This option allows you to override that, in efforts to allow migration from the old inventory script and matches the sanitization of groups when the script's ``replace_dash_in_groups`` option is set to ``False``. The following is a Javascript pre-request I’ve used to automate the process. You could of course distribute some API keys with your app, but this is not a good idea for many reasons. Send the request and you should get the response. The long answer is rooted in history and not-quite-implemented features. Some Web servers generate session IDs by simply incrementing static numbers. The usage did not change. :type config: botocore. Returns a set of temporary credentials for an AWS account or IAM user. The following is a Javascript pre-request I've used to automate the process. {"token_endpoint":"https://login. s3 is a simple client package for the Amazon Web Services (AWS) Simple Storage Service (S3) REST API. This is only needed when you are using temporary credentials. The value generated for x-csrf-token is displayed in the Headers tab of the Response section. , for example, you have any resource of the s3 cloud, you want it to access into your app or anywhere you can request the source using the GET request with the AWS signature. com/archive/dzone/Become-a-Java-String-virtuoso-7454. See the complete profile on LinkedIn and discover François’ connections and jobs at similar companies. Pretty much every endpoint in my API requires. 0 - Azure%20AD. In Postman, Select OAuth 2. #AWS Serverless Examples. Cloudurable™: Leader in AWS cloud computing for Kafka™, Cassandra™ Database, Apache Spark, AWS CloudFormation™ DevOps. aws-adfs command line tool. To refresh your memory, it can be found in the AWS User Pools console under General Settings > App clients. The app login page posts the session token via the browser to the session_via_api_token endpoint, using either a form post or a CORS (Cross Origin Resource Sharing) request. Click on Copy button to save refresh token to clipboard. aws_secret_access_key (string) -- The secret key to use when creating the client. We now need to get our refresh token for our Org in VMC. This is an endpoint to generate the session. description, news and information about ICO fund GBIC (Global Blockchain Innovative Capital). I can call the public (not set to use the user pool) via Postman. We're always watching out for these cases, so get in touch with us if you believe Postman is misbehaving. The first step in using the Lighthouse or Console Server API is to authenticate using a local or remote Opengear username and password, and obtain a session token. Same semantics as aws_access_key_id above. Returns null on Exceptions - This would mean that the contained tokens are not parsable and hence are not valid. ; If parameters are not set within the module, the following environment variables can be used in decreasing order of precedence AWS_URL or EC2_URL, AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID or AWS_ACCESS_KEY or EC2_ACCESS_KEY, AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY or AWS_SECRET_KEY or EC2_SECRET_KEY, AWS. Handling cookies. Welcome to your AWS Workshop Portal. in Postman, you need to set the Browse other questions tagged amazon-web-services. AWS Certified Solutions Architect is the name of the IT certification suite in the Amazon Web Services branch. In this blog post I went through the most basic user flows that can be implemented against AWS Cognito. I'm trying to get a token using postman by following the steps here, but it is not working. Click VMware Cloud on AWS APIs. We've also created the Postman Community Forum as a place for our community to talk to each other and help each other out with questions. Same semantics as aws_access_key_id above. After importing, Postman allows you to add scripts & tests and whole lot more!. vSphere and VMware Cloud on AWS API Postman Resources and Samples. Now that you have the token stored in an environment variable you can use it as a bearer token. We now need to setup a Postman environment for use with VMC. In postman, writing and executing automated tests are possible with the launch of Jetpacks, you can write your basic API tests in JavaScript. getEnvironmentVariable("bearerToken"); Or double curlys like so: {{bearerToken}} Here's an example how to use the bearerToken in the Authorization header. In order to use the session token in a following playbook task you must pass the access_key, access_secret and access_token. The x-amz-content-sha256 is being generated from an empty string. While you have tested your endpoint in the console and seen the results you wanted, you need to deploy your changes as well. token: (Optional) Use this to set an MFA token. {"token_endpoint":"https://login. Define values for AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID, AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY, and other environment variables including AWS_SESSION_TOKEN, AWS_REGION, or AWS_DEFAULT_REGION. Open another postman tab/instance, put values URL, select type "Bearer Token" and paste the above-generated token. The session token is locked to the client IP address of the successful authentication (cannot be used from another IP). 0 servers have multiple flows for obtaining and using request tokens, and now your interface is slightly more complicated. NET and use them to access Amazon S3. Add session token support for inline AWS credentials Description To support scenarios where temporary AWS credentials can be retrieved from sources not directly supported yet (e. This mechanism allows application to assume a role in AWS and obtain a temporary access key, secret access key and session token. Click Generate a New API Token. Sessions for AWS account owners are restricted to a maximum of 3,600 seconds (one hour). However, an AWS conversion compresses the session policies into a packed binary format that has a separate limit. Hacker Noon is an independent technology publication with the tagline, how hackers start their afternoons. Insomnia is a cross-platform GraphQL and REST client, available for Mac, Windows, and Linux. I am also trying to connect to an S3 resource using my credentials that are protected by multi-factor authentication. One super-annoying aspect of requiring MFA for CLI operations is that every day or so, you have to update your STS access token—and also for that token to work you have to update an AWS profile's Access Key ID and Secret Access Key. In the steps below, we will be making Player Management API requests using Postman, so your credentials should have at least the following permissions: Players: Read/Write; You can add as many additional permissions as you like to get credentials that will be usable for a wider range of API requests. But I want to see the access token value in my Console when i run my curl command or through POSTMAN client. Traffic on both ports is encrypted. Example: connect to the session bus, and get a list of active names. In postman, writing and executing automated tests are possible with the launch of Jetpacks, you can write your basic API tests in JavaScript. Install the SDK – Using Composer is the recommended way to install the AWS SDK for PHP. Invalid Postman behavior. I am trying to envoke an APEX class I wrote to retrieve cases using REST in Postman. The only parties that should ever see the access token are the application itself, the authorization server, and resource server. session-related information, and it uses port 4172 (PCoIP port) with both TCP and UDP for pixel streaming to a given WorkSpace and for network health checks. There is an easy way to do auth: cookies. When your security token is reset SF will send you an email with the new token, so if you want to access your security token without resetting it, you can try and find the original email that you recieved. To send my POST request, which are related to AWS ECR, I had to also send authorization token. One super-annoying aspect of requiring MFA for CLI operations is that every day or so, you have to update your STS access token—and also for that token to work you have to update an AWS profile's Access Key ID and Secret Access Key. The Postman app is a convenient tool to test a REST API in API Gateway. Paul Zietsman. aws/credentials), how will i get it? I want them to be generated in command line. Is it possible to use Postman's excelent support for Oauth 2. Open Postman. sts import boto. This is typically a random string of characters. This token is then passed via the headers to authenticate subsequent requests. It seems important that the Amazon S3 Connection node support MFA. Update AWS IAM role to grant authenticated users access to protected API methods; Create a single page app (SPA) using create-react. Develop a real world REST API with login - Basic PHP and MySQL (no frameworks needed) - following a real world scenario. Amazon Cognito Events allows developers to run an AWS Lambda function in response to important events in Cognito. Day two is action-packed. They will be ignored if both are not present. encryption_key - (Optional) The encryption key block AWS CodePipeline uses to encrypt the data in the artifact store, such as an AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS) key. The session ID can be stored as a cookie, form field, or URL (Uniform Resource Locator). That means administrators don’t need to manage separate IAM users for people just needing to use the AWS console. Check the response Body, if everything goes right then the response should be something like this- You can also test the PUSH notification using AWS SNS service. i wanted session token to be updated in aws credential file (~/. Curently I'm getting ECR token manually with AWS CLI: use "aws ecr get-login" command then copy token from command line then I select 'Bearer Token' authorization type in Postman, and past my token to 'Token' field. As discussed, a Session is a local instance to a user in a workspace context wherein you can easily modify variables and Postman will not sync data to the servers keeping it strictly relevant to a local context. What is Postman and how do I use it with Azure? A. If you look in. If you can't find that email you'll need to reset the token. You can confirm this by checking your server logs (if available). Session Tracking. NET Core and deploying it to AWS Lambda. aws_session_token. Thousands of other users has provided. # Once the temp token is obtained, you'll need to feed the following environment. export aws_session_token=secret-session-token export aws_access_key_id=session-access-key export aws_secret_access_key=session-secret-key These environment variables can be used to set the authentication credentials instead of properties in the Hadoop configuration. { "info": { "_postman_id": "dc6474af-3347-eca5-b819-60bdc1f5ba1c", "name": "OpenID Connect - OneLogin API", "schema": "https://schema. Click VMware Cloud on AWS APIs. When my team uses the OAuth2 flow to get a token, our oauth provider return both an access_token and and id_token. Audience represents the recipient of the token. Being a representative of the real exam, this AWS Solutions Architect Associate Dumps can help you get through in your first attempt. postman_collection - Public. The Cheat Sheet Series project has been moved to GitHub! Please visit Session Management. net based web site and when user login then auth token is issued and where it is stored ?. 10/24/2019; 10 minutes to read +3; In this article. Web Programming - O'Reilly Media. You can optionally send your AWS STS requests to endpoints in any of the AWS regions shown in the table that follows. [EDIT] In addition to above I have found that I need to create a certificate in order to authenticate. aws/credentials), how will i get it? I want them to be generated in command line. This section gives a brief overview of how cookies are implemented at the HTTP level. What this code do is that it will use your session instance profile and use the TokenCache under the hood and return you an access token without having to authentication a second time. py tool reads long-lived credentials configured in the. We've also created the Postman Community Forum as a place for our community to talk to each other and help each other out with questions. Part 1 uses examples that are in subbed in statically in the code. The Alexa Skills Kit enables you to give Alexa new abilities by building a cloud-based service. How JWT works and How It Can Solve These Issues. com/common/oauth2/token","token_endpoint_auth_methods_supported":["client_secret_post","private_key_jwt","client. This tutorial walks you through building an authentication microservice in ASP. There is an easy way to do auth: cookies. aws/config - NOT - specify secret/access keys explicitly. If the user is logged on, show a “logout” button which will redirect the user into AWS Cognito logout link. This template creates all the required AWS resources and configures all the resources that are needed to create a Spark-based ETL pipeline on AWS Step Functions. The POSTMAN POST message will look like this-Click on SEND. Websites usually communicate via web services -- the REST API is one of the technologies that can be used to create a web service. This is known. In AWS Cognito, create a User Pool (with a client application) and a Federated Identity Pool. This could be useful in cases when you would like to obtain temporary credentials and session tokens and update environment variables on your own. You have to create platform application in AWS SNS. Postman Collections Create Session Login Token. Postman is a Google Chrome application for testing API calls. This service is scheduled for maintenance from November 1st at 4:00 PM PDT to November 1st at 8:00 PM PDT. When this method is used, you can continue to use a native OpenVPN® client such as Tunnelblick while enjoying MFA authentication. François has 14 jobs listed on their profile. It is just as a sample. Select checkbox by VMware Cloud on AWS. aws_session_token. Reload to refresh your session. OAuth is an open standard for authorization that provides a process for end-users to authorize third-party access to their server resources without sharing their credentials (typically, a username and password pair). Thats why it worked fine using my root account without the session token. Part 1 uses examples that are in subbed in statically in the code. Same semantics as aws_access_key_id above. Reads AWS credentials from the Environment variables AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID and AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY and AWS_SESSION_TOKEN if they exist. Pull events from an Amazon Web Services Simple Queue Service (SQS) queue. Select checkbox by Organization Owner. If you've worked with an AWS account that requires MFA, you would have had to get a session token that was generated using a MFA code. The project provides command line tool - aws-adfs to ease aws cli authentication against ADFS (multi factor authentication with active directory) and. AWS S3 Client Package. How To Read Cookie Value (CSRF token in our case) In POSTMAN For Request Chaining. Click the name of your token so Postman will add the token to the authorization header. Postman REST client is an add-on for chrome that can connect to Salesforce using OAUTH 2. Postman is an excellent alternative to using command line tools for this purpose. The access token represents the authorization of a specific application to access specific parts of a user's data. The IAM access code should look up a profile in ~/. Return to the Postman app. Not sure how to get the aws session token mentioned in the example. See Step 4. setNextRequest(null). They are extracted from open source Python projects. Amazon Cognito Events allows developers to run an AWS Lambda function in response to important events in Cognito. The user may have the snc_read_only role and therefore isn't able to write to the oauth_credential table during token creation. To gain access to your security token, go to "Setup" (appears in the top right corner, under your name). kubectl asks for a token EVERY SINGLE TIME. Here is how you can send dynamic session request for next authenticated request using the Postman test script: Before we start, enable the following modules: Web Service - Handle all web service core and custom. What is Base64 encoding? HOw to Authenticate a REST call using Basic Authentication in Postman. Check your AWS Secret Access Key and signing method. The app login page posts the session token via the browser to the session_via_api_token endpoint, using either a form post or a CORS (Cross Origin Resource Sharing) request. Postman provides built-in support authentication protocols, including OAuth 2. More about Postman at https://getpostman. This article focuses on how to manage state data, such as the contents of a shopping cart, across HTTP sessions. More than 1 year has passed since last update. To test this, we will first generate the token (through login URL and user credentials) in postman (like we did before), copy the token. The access key ID that you use to access the DynamoDB database. Not really! The token needs to be obtained from a server, and OAuth 2. Learn how to login to legacy systems which are using a form-bases / session-based / cookie-based authentication. If your application uses temporary credentials when creating an AWS client (such as an AmazonSQS client), the credentials expire at the time interval specified during their creation. Python script to assume STS role and generate AWS console URL. I am unable to figure out how to authenticate to get a propper session established. The API methods get properly deployed via serverless. It seems important that the Amazon S3 Connection node support MFA. A configuration file called aws-exports. What is Session Hijacking and how to prevent it? What is Session Hijacking? The session hijacking is a type of web attack. The complete interface looks like:. Access tokens begin with the characters Atza|. Calling the API. including postman the session token. Video processing of the session contents has been queued and needs to complete before a session is ready for viewing. path import expanduser from urlparse import urlparse, urlunparse from requests_ntlm import HttpNtlmAuth ##### # Variables # region: The default AWS region that this script will connect # to for all. A configuration file called aws-exports. There are two ways to send your signature with a request. Set credentials for AWS cli. All he had to do was copy and paste the token around to secure. We need to decode the auth token with every API request and verify its signature to be sure of the user's authenticity. Same semantics as aws_access_key_id above. NET Core and deploying it to AWS Lambda. py Share Copy sharable link for this gist. So, is AWS. This command searches the hierarchy of the component's. Call postman. Environments is a set of key-value pairs that allows you to customize requests using variables. Start TntDrive Dashboard and click Add New Mapped Drive. AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY AWS_SESSION_TOKEN. Thanks to Brandond contribution - "Remove storage of credentials, in favor of storing ADFS session cookies" aws-adfs:. It handles the common tasks of logging in, logging out, and remembering your users’ sessions over extended periods of time. Thousands of other users has provided. Gilles Chekroun Lead VMware Cloud on AWS Specialist---Many Customers start to use AWS transit Gateway and want to be able to attach VPCs in multiple accounts. The complete interface looks like:. Acceptable durations for IAM user sessions range from 900 seconds (15 minutes) to 129600 seconds (36 hours), with 43200 seconds (12 hours) as the default. getEnvironmentVariable("bearerToken"); Or double curlys like so: {{bearerToken}} Here's an example how to use the bearerToken in the Authorization header. This option allows you to override that, in efforts to allow migration from the old inventory script and matches the sanitization of groups when the script's ``replace_dash_in_groups`` option is set to ``False``. import boto3 from boto3 import Session def connect_sts(region, role_arn): sts_client = boto3. We need to decode the auth token with every API request and verify its signature to be sure of the user's authenticity. To run the Terraform script, AWS API access should be configured in your terminal. Forgetting to Deploy. When setting up a CloudWatch Logs to Amazon Elasticsearch stream, AWS creates a Node. They are standalone requests that you can execute or use to build up. Now when you start your work session, just log in and all of your endpoints will have the token populated for you at once. The session token will expire after some time depending on the session expiry set for the ROLE in AWS SSO. aws\credentials by OPTION 2 value from Command line or programmatic access screen. To test this, we will first generate the token (through login URL and user credentials) in postman (like we did before), copy the token. AWS is the authorization workflow for Amazon Work Services requests. How can one obtain a AWS session token on the AWS website? (I know how to do it through CLI, but sometimes getting it from the website could be handy). AWS S3 basic operations via AWS Access Key & Session Token - s3. The following are code examples for showing how to use boto3. Typically, you use GetSessionToken if you want to use MFA to protect programmatic calls to specific AWS API operations like Amazon EC2. (Deprecated: This property is incorrectly typed as a [String : String], but claim values may be of several different type. This is the enforced limit. Bash script example for custom services action with session authentication; Calling a REST Server using JSON with PHP; Calling a REST server with Command Line cURL (login, create comment, logout) Do user login with curl and the services 3. It Includes Sub-command for producing the authentication. It also provides as an alternative for autogenerating API documentation to ServiceStack’s Swagger support that makes it easier to call existing services but does require users to. The first step is to configure Postman to authenticate with Azure AD so you can send API requests to SharePoint. To use this plugin, you must have an AWS account, and the following policy. Calling the API. A refresh token is valid for 45 days after generation, as long as you have not refreshed or revoked it. setNextRequest("Request name") or to terminate the remaining collection run using postman. Founded in 2016 and run by David Smooke and Linh Dao Smooke, Hacker Noon is one of the fastest growing tech publications with 7,000+ contributing writers, 200,000+ daily readers and 8,000,000+ monthly pageviews. Viewed 12k times 3. 10/24/2019; 10 minutes to read +3; In this article. To remote control your Alexa you need to extract some authentication credentials from a Browser session. Another way is to replace the full content of C:\Users\ \. There are two ways to send your signature with a request. But if i use the headers and specify the access token and content type in the headers then it worked correctly. # This TLS & bearer token file config is used to connect to the actual scrape # endpoints for cluster components. Very rarely, it is possible that Postman might be making invalid requests to your API server. ; If parameters are not set within the module, the following environment variables can be used in decreasing order of precedence AWS_URL or EC2_URL, AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID or AWS_ACCESS_KEY or EC2_ACCESS_KEY, AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY or AWS_SECRET_KEY or EC2_SECRET_KEY, AWS. In Session-based Authentication the Server does all the heavy lifting server-side. Learn how to create objects, upload them to S3, download their contents, and change their attributes directly from your script, all while avoiding common pitfalls. com/json/collection/v2. Using this method, you can get the access token to call your APEX rest service. JSON Web Token (JWT) is a compact URL-safe means of representing claims to be transferred between two parties. A modern, JVM-based, full-stack framework for building modular, easily testable microservice and serverless applications. We've also created the Postman Community Forum as a place for our community to talk to each other and help each other out with questions. If your application uses temporary credentials when creating an AWS client (such as an AmazonSQS client), the credentials expire at the time interval specified during their creation. aws/credentials file with a AWS CLI profile called example looks like this. From there, simply call the function and pipe it in the clip. Learn how to create objects, upload them to S3, download their contents, and change their attributes directly from your script, all while avoiding common pitfalls. There are different approaches to managing this state data. 44; My app is working on server and have no issues; I'm in a new pc with docker. Operation ⏩ Post By Arun Madhan Intersystems Developer Community Authorization ️ Business Operation ️ REST API ️ Ensemble. Amazon Web Services (AWS) authentication. For questions about the plugin, open a topic in the Discuss forums. As we know cookie based authentication is one way of authentication that is used to access the resources of the same domain. Piszę sobie małą apkę w Angularze 4 z wykorz. I need some help with. 10/24/2019; 10 minutes to read +3; In this article. For instance if you need to generate a signed URL for S3 where you have a key, secret and bucket. Home › Category: stackoverflow › ApolloProvider was not passed a client instance – React Native. When MFA is required, the Create Session Login Token API works in close conjunction with the Verify Factor API call. Now, AWS Security Token Service (STS) enables you to have longer federated access to your AWS resources by increasing the maximum CLI/API session duration to up to 12 hours for an IAM role. We now need to setup a Postman environment for use with VMC. If invalid, there could be two exceptions:. Solar cycle variations of the solar wind. Using Cognito with PhoneGap/Cordova - Part 1 in part 2 we will use OpenFB to sign in and get our Facebook session token AWS has just released a new AWS. The complete interface looks like:. AWS also supports federated SAML based single sign-on (SSO) which provides a mechanism to issue temporary security credentials. SharePoint Online(SPOL) allows remote applications to call the REST API with user impersonation. To get the variable just use this code: postman. The long answer is rooted in history and not-quite-implemented features. Select checkbox by Organization Owner. Is this possible? If yes, How? 1 hour ago How do I change the Root Volume to persist at launch time using the CLI? 1 hour ago. aws_session_token is an optional field that can be provided in addition to the other two fields. Do you need to test the response of Salesforce web service calls, easy way to do is testing through an UI,by filling in input data via Postman rest client. So, is AWS. This course will provide you with the newest and most useful VALIDATED, VERIFIED content. It works based on the principle of computer sessions. {"message": "Missing Authentication Token"} When this happens, there are three areas to check that will save you some debugging headaches. script will be executed and you will have X-CSRF-TOKEN set as 'environment' variable,. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: