Mysql Change Collation Of All Tables

utf8mb4 character set requires more bytes to store a character than latin/utf8, almost double it seems. SELECT CONCAT('ALTER TABLE ',TABLE_SCHEMA,'. At the bottom of the page you will see the collation option. When the collation of some columns changes, all of the (unique) indexes they are used in, are dropped and recreated, except for the filtered (unique) indexes. I'm not sure in php code-. 6 (and will upgrade to 5. Scripting Creating and Running Scripts. The hosting I use, let a user create/change a database in custom interface only. I don't have any script to recreate all object, other wise I would have deleted all constraints, change collation &then recreate it. they change the. The view is from another database (same server) but has a different collation. You can change the table collation this way: ALTER TABLE CONVERT TO CHARACTER SET utf8 COLLATE utf8_unicode_ci; And you can change the column collation like this: ALTER TABLE MODIFY VARCHAR(255) CHARACTER SET utf8 COLLATE utf8_unicode_ci; For more information you can refer to these links:. 0 on 2019-10-04) this pragma returns the columns of the WITHOUT ROWID table as they are used in the records of the underlying b-tree, which is to say with de-duplicated PRIMARY KEY columns first followed by data columns. products sale. cnf entry only works for new entries. Such changes cannot be performed through the cPanel phpMyadmin feature or any other feature we are providing. Scripting Creating and Running Scripts. How to Update MySQL Collation for all tables in the schema 1. Set or Change the Column Collation. phpmyadmin I logged in there to see that all of the tables collation have been changed to utf8mb4-general. schemata table. If the table name is not specified, then the same table is referenced. Configure MySQL Collation at the sever level. I shall begin by describing the syntax of a MySQL script, as scripts will be used for all the examples in this tutorial. We saw two reasons for using table variables rather than temp tables. 6 (and will upgrade to 5. 12 and have some databases with the default collation of > latin1_swedish_ci. I would like to list it out and correct them. Also, it can be used to add, modify or drop a column from an existing table. with your description of. If you also want to do that, you need to use the following command instead:. Actually, you can use CONVERT TO on a table to have it convert all columns within that table to the charset and collation. The change of the default character set/collation of a schema/table will not alter any existing columns or data. Better option to change also collation of varchar columns inside table also. Change Collation Mysql All Tables On Change Collation Mysql All Tables Sale. ICDSoft On ICDSoft , in the MySQL Database Manager screen, you can specify both the database name and collation sequence:. As part of our plan to switch to utf8mb4 as the default character set for MySQL 8. It has the list of available databases. [3] At the bottom of the page you will see the collation option. com/siddontang/mixer/mysql" Index ¶. To show all columns of a table, you use the following steps: Login to the MySQL database server. All other tables remain with the collation, they were initially created. This could happen under several circumstances, for example the database is created without definition of the collation and then the tables were created with a collation setting: mysql> CREATE DATABASE test;. If only the character set is specified, that character set's default collation is used, while if only the collation is specified, the associated character set is used. You need to do two things. You can also change the encoding to u Changing the Database Collation in PhpMyAdmin A collation is a set of rules that defines how to compare and sort character strings. ) alter database set single_user with rollback immediate go alter database collate Latin1_General_CI_AS go. d/mysql restart In case you want to change existing MYSQL tables in bulk. - change-the-collation. 3+, or ask your server administrator to do it for you. Our previous programmer set the wrong collation in a table (Mysql). After change the collation of a database, only the new tables will be created with the new collation. That is user data and not system data so it has to be out of the reach of any form of updates. Binary As of MySQL 4. First, change the storage engine—the value of ENGINE for the table—to a MyISAM table, if it’s not already. Our issue was : A few tables had their character set (only) set to utf8_bin, at the table level. The default charset in XAMPP should be "Latin1", with the collation "latin1_general_ci". I don't have any script to recreate all object, other wise I would have deleted all constraints, change collation &then recreate it. Change Engine Of MySQL Tables in Bulk MySQL August 11, 2014 Leave a comment In this post we will learn how to change engine of MySQL tables in bulk. Set or Change the Column Collation. Step 2: Upgrade the MySQL server. Here's how to do that: SELECT table_schema, table_name, table_collation FROM information_schema. products sale. What you get is a list of SQL commands to alter the collation and character set of all tables. Check character set and collation for MySQL. Has anyone ever accomplished a mass update off all databases, tables and columns for collation? If I try to change the collation/character set for the mysql daemon it breaks all of our queries because they conflict with the swedish default that they have been created with. 7), I run mysql_upgrade. I needed to quickly convert the tables back to utf8 to get the site. To force the MySQL server to use Latin5 as its default character set,. Figure 1 shows the checklist I use to make sure I complete all the steps. Collation in MS SQL Server What Does Collation Do in SQL Server? Collation in SQL server does two things: 1. Specify the MySQL Collation while creating the Schema. Defines a referential constraint. In order to save emoticons and other unicode not supported by MySQL's utf8 we need to change the character set and collation properties of our database, tables and columns. mysql> create database vegibit2 default character set utf8; Query OK, 1 row affected (0. Next, change the character set and collation for the table. TABLES UPDATE_TIME field, enabled for InnoDB tables in MySQL 5. Sometimes databases have a different character collation than its tables. RESTRICT is the default action. The global variable change does not affect the session variable for any client that is currently connected (not even that of the client that issues the SET GLOBAL statement). Mysql Change Collation Of Existing Table will be the most popular items introduced the foregoing full week. For CREATE TABLE statements, the database character set and collation are used as default values for table definitions if the table character set and collation are not specified. Although performing a complete integrity check is a good idea, it's. You can now select a collation from the drop down menu and click on the Go button. Set or Change the Column Collation. See Metasploitable for walkthrough of different parts of Metasploitable virtual box. Loading status checks…. However in the process, the collation for all tables was changed from utf8_unicode_ci to utf8_general_ci How can I change the collation back. mysql> SELECT CONVERT('4', BINARY); Result: '4' This CONVERT example takes the value '4' and converts it as a BINARY datatype with the binary string value of '4'. SHOW In MySQL you can set the default collation for server, database, table or column. You can also return the collation for all tables within a given database if required. You can also change characteristics such as the storage engine used for the table or the table comment. Shop for Best Price Change Collation Of All Tables In Database Mysql. Is there an easy way to update all of these at once. Then you copy the result and run it as the final SQL command that will do the conversion. products sale. Custom Fields) would work. Learn how to change the MySQL collation settings in phpMyAdmin. Add a column to a table if not exists; Backup a MySQL database; Change the charset and collation order for a MySQL database; Connect to a MySQL database using the mysql command line tool; Create user if not exist; Determine which version of MySQL you are connected to; Get or reset AUTO_INCREMENT; List all the connections; List all the databases. The table character set and collation are used as default values for column definitions if the column character set and collation are not specified in individual column definitions. latin1_general_ci – MySQL Database Collation – Case Sensitive February 5, 2008 As you may already know, for the past few weeks or months, I have been in the process of migrating all my websites over to a new hosting company. To see the default collation for each character set, use the SHOW To override this, provide explicit CHARACTER SET and COLLATE table options. > At this moment all the collations of the tables of > the all of the databases on the server are > latin1_swedish_ci and i would like to change this > on a quick way to utf8_general_ci ? Otherwise i > have to handle each table seperate to change the > collation, and with 35 seperated databases is that > a hugh job. To override this, provide explicit CHARACTER SET and COLLATE table options. That is user data and not system data so it has to be out of the reach of any form of updates. Case 1: You insert into the Fact table first and it has an AUTO_INCREMENT id: Grab MAX(id) as the upper bound for summarizing and put it either into some other secure place (an extra table), or put it into the row(s) in the Summary table as you insert them. The third command. You can correct the default collation here. How to convert a MySQL database to UTF-8 encoding. All other tables remain with the collation, they were initially created. He set it up with Latin collation, when it should be UTF8, and now I have issues. A global SQL Server Collation Sequence update is the answer to the puzzle, but it is a multi-step operation. ) alter database set single_user with rollback immediate go alter database collate Latin1_General_CI_AS go. Just a wild guess - but check the collation on your connection. latin1_bin VS. Check constraints are parsed but ignored by all storage engines before MySQL version 8. [3] At the bottom of the page you will see the collation option. It defines DB schema using Rails DSL, and updates DB schema according to DSL. The table character set and collation are used as default values for column definitions if the column character set and collation are not specified in individual column definitions. How to migrate? When migrating from 5. If you change the character set when running MySQL, that may also change the sort order. You can now select a collation from the drop down menu and click on the Go button. products sale. cnf entry only works for new entries. Sometimes the collation is fixed in some table columns or inside stored procedures to solve relationship problems with columns that have different collations. Below is the procedure to change MySQL database collation in PhPMyAdmin :. If you are not fully satisfied with your purchase, you are welcome to return any unworn and unwashed items with tags intact and original packaging included. Then just import the dump and all tables will have the same collation. However I am running into problems as the collation on some columns in the database varies from the database collation. (Note: It is not written in stone which one is the default collation. So it is high risk to change Server side collation. I googled a little and found this solution by shimon doodkin. SHOW In MySQL you can set the default collation for server, database, table or column. Changing the collation of all tables in a mysql database. lester 5 years ago. php which you will have to change the db_name values. This MySQL CREATE TABLE example creates a table called contacts which has 4 columns and one primary key: The first column is called contact_id which is created as an INT datatype (maximum 11 digits in length) and can not contain NULL values. Set or Change the Column Collation. Changing the collation parameters doesn’t modify the collation of existing tables. To see the default collation for each character set, use the SHOW To override this, provide explicit CHARACTER SET and COLLATE table options. But When I tried to restore it from the backup file, am getting all the tables with SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CI_AS collation. @richRemer I think MySQL supports different collation for different columns, but I am not sure how can this be achieved in Laravel 5. 'auth_string', The change in mysql. No triggers can be defined on views. To see how to Find Collation of a SQL Server Database and Table Column, read related article: Find Collation of a SQL Server Database and Table Column. 7), I run mysql_upgrade. mysql_ create database wrong_collation character set utf8 collate In MySQL you can set the default collation for server, database, table or column. 7 for new accounts soon). latin1_general_ci – MySQL Database Collation – Case Sensitive February 5, 2008 As you may already know, for the past few weeks or months, I have been in the process of migrating all my websites over to a new hosting company. At the bottom of the page you will see the collation option. See Metasploitable for walkthrough of different parts of Metasploitable virtual box. Sometimes databases have a different character collation than its tables. How to support full Unicode in MySQL databases specified the collation, make sure to change that all tables. When I upgrade mysql (like 5. 5 makes tables using partitioning or subpartitioning by KEY on any of the affected column types and created on a MySQL 5. 6 (and will upgrade to 5. The change is visible to any client that accesses that global variable. But the result is that all fields of my mysql tables are incorrectly set to utf-8!. You can also return the collation for all tables within a given database if required. Click on "Operations" from the top set of tabs. mysql_ create database wrong_collation character set utf8 collate In MySQL you can set the default collation for server, database, table or column. 1 server today and found some pretty strange behavior. Change mysql collation from latin to utf8 - all tables and all columns - mysql_latin_to_utf8. Select the database in the left pane. You should try to find it. Convert all tables in a MySQL database to utf8_general_ci. In response to How to change the collation for all tables in a MySQL database to UTF-8? where they only changed the default collation for any column which will be created in the future, I post the script which also changes the collation of each FIELD in the database. I would like to list it out and correct them. Suppose you want to change the collation of tables in the database so that you can do the previously mentioned case sensitive search. Columnstore tables get seekable columnstores, which support fast seeks and updates, giving columnstore tables many of the performance and usability features of rowstore tables. Price Low and Options of Change Collation Mysql All Tables from variety stores in usa. Learn the basics of collation and how to set and adjust default collation for a database or table. At this moment all the collations of the tables of the all of the databases on the server are latin1_swedish_ci and i would like to change this on a quick way to utf8_general_ci ? Otherwise i have to handle each table seperate to change the collation, and with 35 seperated databases is that a hugh job. All source code included in the card Show the character set and the collation of your MySQL tables is licensed under the license stated below. The UPDATE_TIME. Character sets and collations always cascade down, so a column without a specified collation will look for the table default, the table for the database, and the database for the server. py etc) I also changed the character-set on the whole database with the following command: ALTER DATABASE databasename CHARACTER SET utf8 COLLATE utf8_unicode_ci; The script gets all the tables from the database and then loops trough them. Step 2: Upgrade the MySQL server. Change Collation of a SQL Server Table Column using T-SQL: First find current column collation: USE AdventureWorks GO Select TABLE_SCHEMA, TABLE_NAME, COLUMN_NAME, COLLATION_NAME, DATA_TYPE. Florian Effenberger wrote: > Hello there, > > I run MySQL 4. Step 1: Check the Database. mysql_ create database wrong_collation character set utf8 collate In MySQL you can set the default collation for server, database, table or column. For CREATE TABLE statements, the database character set and collation are used as default values for table definitions if the table character set and collation are not specified. ; The following example demonstrates how to display columns of the orders table in the classicmodels database. To change the collation of the columns, use the ALTER TABLE command and the ALTER COLUMN command. The default character set for MySQL is latin1, with a default database collation of latin1_swedish_ci. Shop for Low Price Change Collation Of All Tables In Database Mysql. Old tables remain with the collation from when they were created. The first command modifies the DB's default character set and collation by replacing all instances of DEFAULT CHARACTER SET latin1 with DEFAULT CHARACTER SET utf8 COLLATE utf8_general_ci. ) alter database set single_user with rollback immediate go alter database collate Latin1_General_CI_AS go. Data can be stored in a separate MySQL/MariaDB table, which will have to be created. At the bottom of the page you will see the collation option. At the bottom of the page you will see the collation option. MySQL – How to find all Table Columns in all Databases with a given Collation Name – Character Set Name January 28, 2018 March 12, 2018 - by Ryan - Leave a Comment 781 Share Tweet Share. In a large tables with tens of text fields, it would be easy to just check a checkbox "Change all column collations" when changing the default collation for. The change is visible to any client that accesses that global variable. Please note that after your change the collation of a database only the new tables will be created with the new collation. And because of convenience of the customers, most web hosts have set MySQL's collation to utf8 by default. 2, was not updated for XA. If you change the collation of a column, indexes on that column will be regenerated. ' collation to 'utf8mb4. 3, most WordPress databases were created using the latin1 character set and the latin1_swedish_ci collation. Change the collation of the views. When you ran this:. 1, each string column can have its own character set and set of sorting rules for that character set,. Learn how to change the MySQL collation settings in phpMyAdmin. Constants; Variables; func CalcPassword(scramble, password []byte) []byte; func Escape(sql string. Change Collation Mysql All Tables You will not regret if check price. Below is the procedure to change MySQL database collation in PhPMyAdmin :. The database engine also applies the collation to new columns configured with character data types. products sale. 6 trying to use that format. alter table table_name change col_name col_name col_data_type character set utf8; Please note that we have to use same col_name twice!. These notes cover:. When you change the database collation, you change the following: Any char, varchar, text, nchar, nvarchar, or ntext columns in system tables are changed to the new collation. At the bottom of the page you will see the collation option, you can now select a collation from the drop down menu and click on the Go button. Aws Aurora Mysql Change Table Collation. Field You can sepcify a character set and collation for fields that are data type, char, varchar, tinytext, text, meduimtext or longtext. Setting character sets and collations at the table level A database may contain tables with character sets and collations that are different from the default database's character set and collation. Please give me a solutiion for this. In the page Operations search for "Collation "option. Along with I JUST NOW passionately advise the item. How to Update MySQL Collation for all tables in the schema 1. Collations are part of recent MySQL releases, you must set the default collation of the server (or at least of the database) to change that behaviour. Just a wild guess - but check the collation on your connection. from mysql_upgrade --help: MySQL utility for upgrading databases to new MySQL versions. Change collation from general to unicode in mysql. 3+, or ask your server administrator to do it for you. You can now select a collation from the drop down menu and click on the Go button. It takes database name as a parameter and converts all tables to another charset and collation (given by another parameters or default value defined in the script). This is my version of a bash script. Actually, you can use CONVERT TO on a table to have it convert all columns within that table to the charset and collation. A global SQL Server Collation Sequence update is the answer to the puzzle, but it is a multi-step operation. Most tables' collation is cp1251, but there are newer tables (from plugins) that are utf8. The Table object is one of the most useful APIs provided by Phinx. 2 the users were unable to publish or save as draft posts in Cyrillic, nor create new terms in Cyrillic. All existing char, varchar, text, nchar, nvarchar, or ntext parameters and scalar return values for stored procedures and user-defined functions are changed to the new. How to support full Unicode in MySQL databases specified the collation, make sure to change that all tables. tables WHERE table_schema = 'Music'; Example results:. Change the collation for all tables in a MySQL database How to change the database collation is easy, but how to change all the table collation? You can use script as below. I moved my database from one server to another server. Convert the Collation of Table Columns. The view is from another database (same server) but has a different collation. A create table or alter table add column command can use a character set or collation clause, which will set for a field with no character set or collation specified. Change mysql collation from latin to utf8 - all tables and all columns - mysql_latin_to_utf8. On all DBs except MySQL this was a no-op, but MySQL returned (for string-type data) either the utf8 binary or case-insensitive collation as appropriate for the given lookup type. Recently I needed to quickly change charset on all tables and change each field’s chanset in each table in a specific database to latin1 and collation to latin1_swedish_ci. Hence I need a solution how to change column level collation for all columns for all tables in a BBC database. Change the database collation (or this will be all for naught when people try to create objects and you will have to try again. MySQL supports the use of character sets for the MyISAM, MEMORY, NDBCluster, and InnoDB storage engines. We've just done some recon of the Metasploitable box, which is at 10. Click on the operations tab from the set tabs on the top. I've been running a couple of tests on a MySQL 5. Let's look at each step in more detail. We use Mysql 5. In such cases, Mysql used the default collation for utf8, that is utf8_general_ci. alter table table_name change col_name col_name col_data_type character set utf8; Please note that we have to use same col_name twice!. demo shows how you can check Default Character Set and Collation of MySQL Server by using Workbench "Status and System Variables" tab. Mysql Change Table Collation To Utf-8 >>>CLICK HERE<<< I ran into a strange situation with WordPress where the MySQL server did not support utf8mb4. Pull Request not for an issue, see summary. Attention: all temporary tables are dropped at the end of the MySQL connection which had created them. I placed the file in my Django project folder (same folder as settings. latin1_bin VS. utf8mb4 character set requires more bytes to store a character than latin/utf8, almost double it seems. Collation encodes the rules that govern the correct use of characters for the character set. To change the collation for an existing table, you need to use the ALTER TABLE statement, for example:. ',TABLE_NAME,' CONVERT TO CHARACTER SET utf8 COLLATE utf8_general_ci;') FROM information_schema. 7, triggers are limited to one per action / timing, meaning that at most one trigger can be defined to be executed after an INSERT operation, and one before INSERT on the same table. Price Low and Options of Change Collation Of All Tables In Database Mysql from variety stores in usa. Florian Effenberger wrote: > Hello there, > > I run MySQL 4. 1 or newer) supports a default collation for the database, a default collation for each table (which can be changed for specific tables) and also collations for individual columns in a tables. of MariaDB). Is there a single or a one line command to modify all tables within a database. Is possible to change collation and get back the detail of character?. I have edited the my. mysql> SELECT CONVERT('4', BINARY); Result: '4' This CONVERT example takes the value '4' and converts it as a BINARY datatype with the binary string value of '4'. products sale. How can I do this? Can a script do. How to convert a MySQL database to UTF-8 encoding. Some tables may not be referenced, such as metadata tables. (like Chef/Puppet) ChangeLog * `>= 0. Just a wild guess - but check the collation on your connection. Few webmasters come asking such questions wherein they have a requirement to change the MySQL collation to overcome issues related to encoding of foreign characters. Click on the required database table from the list of tables as shown in the screenshot below. The default collation is inherited; that is, if you don't change the collation for a database the server's default will be used. To change all the database collation, you can use the php script as below as it can change all the collation for all the existing table. Due to the Restricted functions in Atlassian Cloud apps, the contents of this article cannot be applied to Atlassian Cloud applications. Step 1: Login to cPanel. tables WHERE table_schema = 'Music'; Example results:. Change the character set and collation properties of the databases, tables, and columns to use utf8mb4 instead of utf8. If the language collation of your production and staging site database server is different you can use the MySQL query below to create a new query which allows you to change the language collation of all database tables at once. You should try to find it. cnf entry only works for new entries. Below is syntax to convert columns to utf8. Hi all above is my table there is four rows, three rows have value like :test=20, test1=20, test2=20. For 1 database : mysql -u username -ppassword -D db_name backup. 7, triggers are limited to one per action / timing, meaning that at most one trigger can be defined to be executed after an INSERT operation, and one before INSERT on the same table. These notes cover:. 3 Specifying Character Sets and Collations. Yet another way is to specify the collation during query in case the collation cannot be specified for the entire table. At least, that's how I got around this weird collation issue. Price Low and Options of Change Collation Mysql All Tables from variety stores in usa. In my current project I had a situation where I was required to convert all the database table's character set and collation to utf8_general_ci. Step 3: Modify databases, tables, and columns. If you’re only interested in the collation info, you can query information_schema. You can change the table collation this way: ALTER TABLE CONVERT TO CHARACTER SET utf8 COLLATE utf8_unicode_ci; And you can change the column collation like this: ALTER TABLE MODIFY VARCHAR(255) CHARACTER SET utf8 COLLATE utf8_unicode_ci; For more information you can refer to these links:. I have a SQL Server database where the collation is set on it. It also defines the sort order to use on the data as well as the case sensitivity. Change Collation Of All Tables In Database Mysql You will not regret if check price. Shopping Tips for buy Mysql Change Table Collation Utf8mb4 Unicode Ci Mysql Change Table Collation Utf8mb4 Unicode Ci No online shopping store/website needs your social security number or your birthday to do business then chances are you don't give this information to store/website. Change the collation at the table level. This includes both code snippets embedded in the card text and code that is included as a file attachment. MemSQL is a high-performance, in-memory database that combines the horizontal scalability of distributed systems with the familiarity of SQL. Check character set and collation for MySQL. A "collation" is a sequence order for a particular Character set. You may have to change the collation for a database or table based on the character set you want to use for string data. Generally speaking, we should choose temp tables where they work but this will not be the best choice in absolutely every circumstance. For many who are looking for Change Collation Mysql All Tables review. Mysql Change Collation All Tables Database InStock yes Valid Offer! Things to Buy at this store. READ ME FIRST Changing your database. If you read the following link, Set or Change the Column Collation, from TechNet you'll notice that there are some restrictions on when you can change the collation of a column. When a new table was created, the collation of the new table was always latin1_swedish_ci, even though the default collation of the database was set to lati. I did a bit more research on this and it looks like from what I found that the format utf8mb4_unicode_520_ci was introduced in MySQL 5. By default, with a UTF-8 database, MySQL will use the utf8_general_ci collation. of MariaDB). MySQL uses the character set and collation at the database level for all tables created within the database. I don't have any script to recreate all object, other wise I would have deleted all constraints, change collation &then recreate it. Login to your Account's cPanel 2. The view is from another database (same server) but has a different collation. Change Character Set and Collation of Table and Columns. Shop for Low Price Change Collation Of All Tables In Database Mysql. You should try to find it. d/mysql restart In case you want to change existing MYSQL tables in bulk. objects are written. Change collation on the fly (select statement) – Learn more on the SQLServerCentral forums statement into that table to give the volunteers here representative data. I needed to quickly convert the tables back to utf8 to get the site. As long as our database is currently using utf8 there should be no risk of data loss as utf8mb4 is fully backwards compatible with it. Make a backup first!. Otherwise "utf8" charset and utf8_unicode_ci collation should be used. In that section, in the Name field you should input the desired new name of the table and then select the number of columns that the table should have via the Number of columns drop-down. 09 - 10:18 — müzso There's no one-line command to do this in MySQL, but there's a command for changing a table's default character set (and/or collation) and convert all it's columns to the new character set (and/or collation). I have edited the my. demo shows how you can check Default Character Set and Collation of MySQL Server by using Workbench "Status and System Variables" tab. DB_CHARSET is utf8 and I guess it was always like that. All shared MS SQL databases support Unicode characters, allowing the storage of a variety of alphabets. Hence I need a solution how to change column level collation for all columns for all tables in a BBC database. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: