Websocket Textmessage

This guide is aimed at people who are new to WebSocket, or just wish to know more about what's under the hood. websocketd is the WebSocket daemon. Example WebSocket session. htmlWe need to have avideoThe multimedia tag introduces our local video, adds the input box of the input bullet screen, the button to confirm sending, the color selector, the font size slider, and creates astyle. We had to write custom middleware class for WebSocket communication and in our case the class came pretty small. org have produced an web apge that allows you to play with their WebSocket or put in the URL for one of your own. The client can send messages and the server can receive messages at any time, as long as there is an active WebSocket connection between the server and the client. NET WebAPI and ASP. Use WebSockets over REST? At PubNub we have taken WebSockets to extreme scale and reliability, being able to service millions of devices across the globe and billions of messages each day being sent across the wire. Importantly, it lets you push data from the server to a client (e. The existing methods described above are neither reliable nor efficient when it comes to full-duplex real-time communications. Socket, later I came to know that its just a TCP socket and WebSocket won’t works with it unless you use websockify to bridge in between. Also, the WebSocket protocol specifies no standards for any commands to the server, this is implementation specific. All messages have a type attribute that can be used to handle the message appropriately. WebSocket is the only transport that allows bidirectional communication over the same TCP connection (Figure 17-2): the client and server can exchange messages at will. To make this clearer Ocelot will receive messages from the upstream client, proxy these to the downstream service, receive messages from the downstream service and proxy these to the upstream client. Send and save chat messages over a socket. ActiveMQ has several extensions to the Stomp protocol, so that JMS semantics can be supported by Stomp clients. HTML preprocessors can make writing HTML more powerful or convenient. Using Extended CONNECT To Bootstrap The WebSocket Protocol, status code Using Extended CONNECT To Bootstrap The WebSocket Protocol, status code. WebSocketFlow): """ A websocket connection has commenced. Hi, I am currently testing a non browser sample application. Welcome to the Amberdata API developer hub. Alex Banks will also teach you how to implement WebSockets natively in a web browser using the WS module. The default format is 'blob'. Messages sent by the server to the client can include plain text messages, binary data, o. The WebSocket standard rearranges a great part of the unpredictability around bi-directional web correspondence and association administration. IO is NOT a WebSocket implementation. To receive data from the server, we simply call the recv method on the WebSocket object. To specify the format of the received binary, set the binaryType property of WebSocket object to either 'blob' or 'arraybuffer'. The messages received from the Echo WebSocket server are displayed inside the onMessage method. Posts in it are meant to provide short and informative introductions to various topics. The Message event takes place usually when the server sends some data. Websockets are a great way to keep a connection alive and push messages back and forth between server and client. For example, suppose a chat application uses WebSockets to send chat messages between the browser and the server. Direct Text Message. Click Open. In this tutorial I will take you through a example script that publishes messages and subscribes to topics using MQTT and websockets. If port is a port to which the user agent is configured to block access, then throw a SECURITY_ERR exception. Here, one should select a data format that is widely supported on all platforms. WebSocket is a communication protocol that makes it possible to establish a two-way communication channel between a server and a client. The message layer of CoAP over UDP includes support for reliable delivery, simple congestion control, and flow control. NET’s new support for WebSockets in. Enter WebSockets, what’s meant to solve exactly that – the web browser connects to the web server by establishing a WebSocket connection. As a result, WebSocket provides low latency delivery of text and binary application data in both directions. This is a test system to help to diagnose such issues, to help you get the best experience of Chorus. This article is about how we developed the high-load WebSocket server with Go. The client can send messages and the server can receive messages at any time, as long as there is an active WebSocket connection between the server and the client. Returns true for success, false for failure. either two or eight additional bytes if the length did not fit in the second byte. If you are using Google Chrome you may need to restart your browser. Individual messages contains all necessary information for being processed by the next party, be it a user-agent (browser), server, proxy. WebSockets can be implemented natively by browser vendors or by using a bridge that delegates calls to a hidden Flash component called FlashSockets. WebSockets allow a browser to send messages to a server and receive event-driven responses without having to poll the server for a reply. WebSocket断开时,会触发CloseEvent, CloseEvent会在连接关闭时发送给使用 WebSockets 的客户端. You might want to verify websocket. Instead, you must use the OnWebSocketMessage event handler within your FiddlerScript. An IntEnum for keeping close message code. Configuring & Optimizing WebSocket Compression. To handle it, add an event listener for the message event, or use the onmessage event handler. Most modern browsers. WebSocket support is probably a key feature to have on a modern web framework, Perl Catalyst doesn't look like it wasn't designed with it in mind, the way I found to do WS there wasn't intuitive. You can use it to build a server side socket application (like game server, GPS server, industrial control system, data acquisition server etc) easily without thinking about how to use socket, how to maintain the socket connections and. These messages are broken up into frames and take a similar path to that of HTTP messages allowing them to travel through the same proxies. It provides a simple data entry style of interface for you to be able to see a WebSocket opening connections, sending messages and closing connections. To make this clearer Ocelot will receive messages from the upstream client, proxy these to the downstream service, receive messages from the downstream service and proxy these to the upstream client. It is a little bit lower level than the STA-Websockets but that could be a good thing depending on your needs. Implementation of raw websocket in spring boot to send message to specific session. This article is about WebSockets in ASP. Channel layer - transports http and websocket messages and delivers them to worker processes that run normal Django views as well as Channels specific consumer code. 它在 WebSocket 对象的 onclose 事件监听器中使用。CloseEvent的code字段表示了WebSocket断开的原因。可以从该字段中分析断开的原因。 3. result = ws. The Message event takes place usually when the server sends some data. The default format is 'blob'. And you can send messages ("events", in our idiom) back to the server and to all connected users. WebSocket transmissions are described as "messages", where a single message can optionally be split across several data frames. The choice is entirely yours, (but some ways are righter than others). 2016-03-02 21:31:49 UTC #1. They only provide the illusion of reliability. How can I send and receive messages on the server side using WebSocket, as per the protocol? Why do I get seemingly random bytes at the server when I send data from the browser to the server?. IO_TIMEOUT_MS and is the timeout as a String in milliseconds. Forcibly closes the underlying connection. The data you send over the WebSocket protocol are MQTT messages. WebSockets simplify this communication by providing a single connection which both client and server can send messages across. Send and receive JSON objects via gracefull websockets and use a fluent deferred interface, queuing messages. WebSockets is an event-driven API; when messages are received, a message event is sent to the WebSocket object. It is called with a MessageEvent. The API for sending messages is the same for annotated as well as programmatic endpoints which in contrast to receiving messages (next chapter) which are handled differently for different endpoints. If you use Server instead of Handler, you could call websocket. cfc extension handlers were receiving the browser websocket messages during the failure, but it is positive that the server was not publishing back out to the browser listeners. When a text message was received, onTextMessage(WebSocket, String) is called. Luckily, Pusher also added an HTTP long polling fallback in case WebSockets doesn't work. You might want to verify websocket. New Websocket API. Similarly, the client can send messages to the server at any time. public TextMessage(CharSequence payload, boolean isLast) Create a new text WebSocket message with the given payload representing the full or partial message content. Now if you think about that a bit, you’ll come to realize a fundamental truth of sockets: messages must either be fixed length (yuck), or be delimited (shrug), or indicate how long they are (much better), or end by shutting down the connection. In your production system, you probably have a frontend created with a modern framework like React, Vue. WebSockets in InterSystems IRIS. Over that connection, both the browser and the server can send each other unsolicited messages. A WebSocket message can be composed of one or more frames. Based on GNU Libmicrohttpd for the backend web server, Jansson for the json manipulation library, and Libcurl for the http/smtp client API. The client can send messages and the server can receive messages at any time, as long as there is an active WebSocket connection between the server and the client. 5에서 웹소켓을 사용하기 위한 절차임. But all three exchanges are part of a single session with the service. When I was looking for samples of WebSocket Server in NodeJS most results where using socket. io and React. Data is transferred through a WebSocket as messages, each of which consists of one or more frames containing the data you are sending (the payload). Messages over websockets can be provided in any protocol, freeing the application from the sometimes unnecessary overhead of HTTP requests and responses (including headers, cookies, and other artifacts). STOMP allows pluggable headers on each request such as sending & receiving messages. WebSocket ( RFC 6455 ) is a protocol that enables two-way persistent communication channels over TCP connections. It has a send method for pushing data to the server and you can provide an onmessage handler for receiving data from the server. The application can get the type of a received data message by implementing a Codec marshal function. NET Core application. We'll create the classes for encoding and decoding messages. Writer operate across WebSocket frame boundaries. This is a test system to help to diagnose such issues, to help you get the best experience of Chorus. The device URL is:. Sending Messages. The choice is entirely yours, (but some ways are righter than others). The WebSocket API in Java EE offers a powerful lifecycle model and. A WebSocket message can be composed of one or more frames. Use require_websocket to only allow WebSocket connections but reject normal HTTP requests. In modern applications, it is common for JSON to be used to send structured data within WebSocket messages. Why does Firefox reject my servers websocket upgrade request? (It works using Chrome) The handshake messages in this case are: If I change the websocket. All the queued messages are trasmitted before closing the connection. With websockets you can do real time messaging for. client:close()¶ Closes a websocket connection. Client side tasks exist to initiate and handle handshake over an HTTP connection and to support sending and receiving WebSocket messages. Unlike NodeJS where the upgrade process is handled in websocket, here the upgrade is handled by KituraNet with the registration of protocols that can be upgraded to. These messages are broken up into frames and take a similar path to that of HTTP messages allowing them to travel through the same proxies. The server and client can communicate and exchange data at the same time. Origin in the func. Receiving Messages. WS-RS uses MIO to leverage asynchronous IO to allow for handling multiple WebSocket connections on a single thread. Data is transferred through a WebSocket as messages, each of which consists of one or more frames containing the data you are sending (the payload). That’s huge volume, and we do all that completely seamlessly without any data loss. Websocket and CORS Test Page. You might want to verify websocket. Built on top of asyncio, Python's standard asynchronous I/O framework, it provides an elegant coroutine-based API. Data is transferred through a WebSocket as messages, each of which consists of one or more frames containing the data you are sending (the payload). WebSockets - Send & Receive Messages. WebSocket is a well-known protocol that enables full-duplex communication between client and server, generally used in web. As of version 2. This demo uses the WebSocket API to send text messages to the Kaazing Gateway Echo service, which echoes back the messages. The following example shows a WebSocket session between a client and the Speech to Text service. In Wireshark i would associate that functionality with "Follow TCP stream". Hub is where we glue WebSockets with Redis’ Pub/Sub channels. §WebSockets. WebSockets in Angular. WebSocket protocol. Sockets namespace in your Windows Runtime app. The Android and iOS application will connect to a server using websockets and communicate to it in real-time. WebSocket transmissions are described as "messages", where a single message can optionally be split across several data frames. Built on top of asyncio, Python's standard asynchronous I/O framework, it provides an elegant coroutine-based API. For example:. Hi, I am currently testing a non browser sample application. Translate websocket messages to message queues and/or PubSub channels I'm looking to implement, or find an existing service, that accepts websocket connections on one hand, and translates them into message queues and/or pub/sub channels on the other - sending them to something like redis or rabbitmq. Here's how a client sends and receives messages:. ParseException String: The client sent garbage, i. Layering higher level, richer business protocols, such as pub/sub on top of it gives you a lot of flexibility and power. It receive text messages over the WebSocket connection, appends "You said " to the front of the message and sends it back over the WebSocket connection. 它在 WebSocket 对象的 onclose 事件监听器中使用。CloseEvent的code字段表示了WebSocket断开的原因。可以从该字段中分析断开的原因。 3. , a high number of incoming WebSocket messages), the profiles of the application servers and Web Dispatcher have to be adjusted accordingly; see the following SAP Notes:. Here we send messages between different WebSocket clients with EventEmitter. It implements browser based remote sockets, which allows browsers to have full-duplex communications with servers. WebSocket is a different protocol for delivering data, it's not automatically multiplexed over HTTP/2 connections. Implementing custom multiplexing both on the server and the client is bit complicated. WebSocket 简介 WebSocket协议支持(在受控环境中运行不受信任的代码的)客户端与(选择加入该代码的通信的)远程主机之间进行全双工通信。用于此的安全模型是Web浏览器常用的基于原始的安全. Receiving Messages. After a message is receive at starts t e message content REQUESTMESSAGES:, t he server loops an d returns 10 messages wit a e ay of 1 secon using t e same con-nection. * and close conenction patter as - 6:::* I see [Execution Flow] - Reusing exising connection - Waiting for messages for 1000 MILLISECONDS - Leaving streaming connection open. close(0, "Bye"); asks the server to gracefully close the connection and waits for confirmation. But most critical is the ability to deliver downstream (server-to-client) messages to connected clients. For more information about WebSocket return codes, see IETF RFC 6455. §WebSockets. The problem is there is no WebSocket message to double-click. , to support WebSocket subprotocol, here is a workaround. Use it only if you really know that you will run your application in an environment that supports WebSockets. The SockJS client will attempt to connect to "/gs-guide-websocket" and use the best transport available (websocket, xhr-streaming, xhr-polling, etc). To prevent abuse, Gemini imposes rate limits on incoming requests as described in the Gemini API Agreement. We’ll use this to connect to Pusher, as per usual. Connect Finally, Click on the Publish button to enter the Topic and some Messages. Sometimes I feel that protocols such as Web-Stomp, MQTT and STOMP get left in the shadow behind the AMQP protocol. A websocket is a bi-directional, full-duplex, persistent connection between a web browser and a server. Test a WebSocket using curl. In order to send messages from our Go application to any connected WebSocket clients, we can utilize the ws. net), Compatible with any web browser, privacy & security, simple & easy usage,any websocket case. The client can send messages and the server can receive messages at any time, as long as there is an active WebSocket connection between the server and the client. WebSocket transmissions are described as "messages", where a single message can optionally be split across several data frames. Use the WebSocket object to send and receive messages. We'll create the classes for encoding and decoding messages. This is ideal for testing and debugging since you can display live information from a device or sensor in real time. Besides just listening for messages openGalaxy can also be used to arm/disarm the panel and much more. Messages sent by the server to the client can include plain text messages, binary data, or images. For example, if the server sends a 1 MB payload, the application's onmessage callback will be called only when the entire message is available on the client. The default setting is to store a snapshot every 60 seconds - but you can change this interval in the configuration file as well. WSCloseCode¶. Through WebSockets you can publish and consume messages and use all the features available in the Java, Go, Python and C++ client libraries. createClient() -- ws:close() ws = nil websocket. If the application setting websocket_ping_interval has a non-zero value, a ping will be sent periodically, and the connection will be closed if a response is not received before the websocket_ping_timeout. Format of each tradeable pair is A/B, where A and B are ISO 4217-A3 for standardized assets and popular unique symbol if not standardized. WebSocket is a communication protocol that makes it possible to establish a two-way communication channel between a server and a client. In this article I show you, how you can push messages to a client. WriteMessage() function like so:. The Web MQTT plugin makes it possible to use MQTT over a WebSocket connection. the range of scenarios and use cases will grow over time. a browser) without needing to make a request. The Real Time Messaging API is a WebSocket-based API that allows you to receive events from Slack in real time and send messages as users. Writer operate across WebSocket frame boundaries. IO_TIMEOUT_MS and is the timeout as a String in milliseconds. But all three exchanges are part of a single session with the service. Just return back a statusCode (ex: 200) property in your payload to tell API Gateway everything is good, but it will not send that to the client. Hacking Slack using postMessage and WebSocket-reconnect to steal your precious token February 28, 2017 TLDR ; I was able to create a malicious page that would reconnect your Slack WebSocket to my own WebSocket to steal your private Slack token. This article is about WebSockets in ASP. HTML5 to the Rescue! WebSockets provide full-duplex communication over a single connection between the browser and the server. WAMP is a WebSocket subprotocol registered at IANA, specified to offer routed RPC and PubSub. There are no plans to add such support in future. For every opened websocket connection, there is a single WebSocket object instantiated. Websockets are part of the HTML5 standard and are bidirectional asynchronous sockets that can be used to pass messages between a browser and an external program. Rebex WebSocket is a WebSocket client library for. The aim of this project is to provide a websocket client in multiple languages an to be used in non-browser applications. The WebSocket API in Java EE offers a powerful lifecycle model and. zip Download v1. Note that you can send text or hexadecimal. A WebSocket message can be composed of one or more frames. NET Core is simple. 2016-03-02 21:31:49 UTC #1. The Real Time Messaging API is a WebSocket-based API that allows you to receive events from Slack in real time and send messages as users. Simply set the "compress" : true flag to true and gzip payloads will be sent instead of uncompressed text. SAP Library - SAP Plant Connectivity. WebSockets are changing the game for developers. The flow object is guaranteed to have a non-None request attribute. In many web applications, websockets are used to push messages to a client for real-time updates. either two or eight additional bytes if the length did not fit in the second byte. There are a number of WebSocket frameworks and Socket. Since the APIs for notifications are supposed to be thread-safe, this out of band behavior of websocket control messages means that if you were handling a large message, consisting of many websocket frames (fragments), we couldn't notify you of the PING or PONG until your endpoint is done handling the message. The Log shows response messages. With WebSockets you can transfer as much data as you like without incurring the overhead associated with traditional HTTP requests. Instead, you must use the OnWebSocketMessage event handler within your FiddlerScript. The difference between a websocket client and a websocket server lies only in the means by which the two parties are connected. WebSockets are a mechanism to keep a bi-directional real-time ordered connection between the server and the client. Send a WebSocket message: either TextMessage or BinaryMessage. How to call the websocket server to sends the message to the client in spring. The first thing is to decide if the main HTTP flow is blocked until the check completes or not. Web Thing WebSocket API. It is the basis for all Slack clients. Complete Solution: Alternatives to WebSockets HTTP Streaming is an Industry Standard for message passing, signaling and data delivery on a Global Real-Time Network as a mediation of service. The first argument to the decorator is the event name. Binary frames can be received in Blob or ArrayBuffer format. Use WebSockets over REST? At PubNub we have taken WebSockets to extreme scale and reliability, being able to service millions of devices across the globe and billions of messages each day being sent across the wire. The simple case is where a single frame is both the first and last frame in a message. The WebSocket. Input request text, then click Send. websocket provides the necessary APIs for building client endpoints. # webSocket. Clicking on a link or submitting a form triggers the page to send several WebSocket messages to the server. Returns¶ websocketclient. WebSocket is a relatively new technology, so not all proxies support them. For the latest version of The WebSocket API use the WHATWG Living Standard. Decades of experience have taught the web community some best practices around HTTP security, but the security best practices in the WebSocket world aren't firmly established, and continue to evolve. WebSocket is an HTML5 protocol that simplifies and speeds up communication between clients and servers. A WebSocket message can be composed of one or more frames. Net/Mono socket server application framework. js application, this is what the HTML output looks like: The raw HTTP trace (shown below) from Fiddler shows the WebSockets protocol upgrade request that is sent by the client-side portion of socket. Example¶ local ws = websocket. Currently I am unable to see websocket messages for non browser client. class filtered_websocket. Sending messages from the server. SEND_TO_ALL Sends the message to all clients which are currently connected. Click on the Connect button to connect to the server and subscribe to the /queue/test/ queue. No one in the Web Platform Working Group is actively working on this specification. we could not parse the WebSockets stream. The SockJS client will attempt to connect to "/gs-guide-websocket" and use the best transport available (websocket, xhr-streaming, xhr-polling, etc). Thanks to that we can call the on function on it and listen to the connection event for upcoming connections. This article guides you through the implementation of a WebSocket server and client based on the Spring Framework. A similar plugin, Web STOMP plugin, makes it possible to use STOMP over WebSockets. As always, the full source code is available here. public TextMessage(CharSequence payload, boolean isLast) Create a new text WebSocket message with the given payload representing the full or partial message content. Kaazing WebSocket Echo Demo. Here’s how a client sends and receives messages:. We used concurrent dictionary as a WebSockets cache and this enabled us to broadcast messages over sockets. If you use Server instead of Handler, you could call websocket. The WebSocket stack handles the ZeroMQ message and sends it to the appropriate clients through open WebSocket connections. Here we send messages between different WebSocket clients with EventEmitter. BlaB! WS Free realtime group chat system (client & server) based on websockets. The data you send over the WebSocket protocol are MQTT messages. Learn a new way to implement Reverse Ajax, using WebSockets, a new HTML5 API. Again, most of that state is in the scope, which will live as long as the socket does. Gevent, ZeroMQ, WebSockets, and Flot FTW! As part of the work I've been doing on Zarkov I've had the opportunity to play around with a lot of cool technologies, among which are gevent , ZeroMQ , WebSockets , and Flot. Unlike NodeJS where the upgrade process is handled in websocket, here the upgrade is handled by KituraNet with the registration of protocols that can be upgraded to. Once a connection is established through a handshake, messages can be passed back and forth while keeping the connection open. NET The project gives opportunity to have an idea about how to use the WebSockets in ASP. In this course, you will build a Java server that supports the Java API for Web Sockets,. Note that implementations of a client/front-end or a room need to understand both how to send required messages, but also how to receive and process messages of different types that will be sent in their direction. You can also now use the console to configure logging of your AWS IoT activity to CloudWatch Logs. Both protocols are located at layer 7 in the OSI model and, as such, depend on TCP at layer 4. In order to send messages from our Go application to any connected WebSocket clients, we can utilize the ws. This post is to about using WebSockets in your ASP. In simple terms, WebSockets make it possible for data to be transferred from the client to the server and vice versa in real time. A WebSocket connection can both send data to the app and receive data from the app. IO's "Hello world" is a chat app in just a few lines of code. The web_socket_channel package provides the tools you need to connect to a WebSocket server. WebSockets are frame-based and not stream-based. First I thought of using simple net. So I guess it's really a wash--the *average* max websocket message size is actually now 8MB lower. Example¶ local ws = websocket. The difference between a websocket client and a websocket server lies only in the means by which the two parties are connected. Ping-Pong: A javax. To specify the format of the received binary, set the binaryType property of WebSocket object to either 'blob' or 'arraybuffer'. The underlying javascript library will reconnect in case the connection is being close. back-and-forth communication across the same TCP connection. This demo uses the WebSocket API to send text messages to the Kaazing Gateway Echo service, which echoes back the messages. While the WebSocket class is straightforward and easy to use, it really is just a basic building block. So I knew that socket. If the application setting websocket_ping_interval has a non-zero value, a ping will be sent periodically, and the connection will be closed if a response is not received before the websocket_ping_timeout. WebSocket support is probably a key feature to have on a modern web framework, Perl Catalyst doesn't look like it wasn't designed with it in mind, the way I found to do WS there wasn't intuitive. Codemotion Roma 28,812 views. First I thought of using simple net. zip Download v1. The session is shown as three separate exchanges to make it easier to follow. The simple case is where a single frame is both the first and last frame in a message. If you are still having issues please contact us using the button below. Right now only client mode is supported, i. After a message is receive at starts t e message content REQUESTMESSAGES:, t he server loops an d returns 10 messages wit a e ay of 1 secon using t e same con-nection. The web browsers handle the incoming message and update the web page with Javascript accordingly. WebSocket is a relatively new technology, so not all proxies support them. But most critical is the ability to deliver downstream (server-to-client) messages to connected clients. And to communicate using WebSockets with your backend you would probably use your frontend's utilities. The with-channel does the WebSocket handshake automatically. The audio codec presently supported on the WebSocket interface is Linear PCM 16-bit, with either a 8kHz or a 16kHz sample rate, and a 20ms frame size. WebSocket protocol servers should handle PING/PONG messages themselves, and send PING messages as necessary to ensure the connection is alive. Please note that our app requires WebSocket connections. org have produced an web apge that allows you to play with their WebSocket or put in the URL for one of your own. The security model for WebSockets as defined in RFC6455 section 1. The component uses the AHC component that in turn uses the Async Http Client library. Let's look at how to implement WebSockets with the Spring Boot framework, and use STOMP for effective client-server communication. Messages sent by the server to the client can include plain text messages, binary data, or images. Clicking on a link or submitting a form triggers the page to send several WebSocket messages to the server. Also, the WebSocket protocol is bi-directional i. Web sockets are defined as two-way communication between the servers and clients, which mean both parties can communicate and exchange data at the same time. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: